Welcome to this comprehensive guide where we delve into one of the most frequently asked questions in poultry care: What do chickens eat? If you’re a chicken owner, understanding the dietary needs of your flock is not just knowing; it’s essential for their well-being and productivity.

Importance of Understanding What Chickens Eat

Why It Matters

  • Nutrient Intake: Ensures your flock receives the nutrients they need to thrive.
  • Egg Quality: A well-fed chicken is more likely to produce high-quality eggs.
  • Disease Resilience: Proper nutrition makes chickens more resilient against diseases.

The Role of Proper Nutrition in Chicken Health and Egg Production

Key Benefits

  1. Health: Impacts every aspect of a chicken’s life.
  2. Egg Production: Well-nourished chickens produce eggs more consistently.
  3. Stress Resilience: Proper diet makes chickens more resilient to environmental stressors.

By the end of this guide, you’ll have a thorough understanding of what chickens eat, the types of feed available, and how to provide a balanced diet that ensures optimal health and egg production. So, let’s get started!

The Basics of Chicken Nutrition

Understanding the basics of chicken nutrition is the cornerstone of responsible poultry care. In this section, we’ll explore the dietary nature of chickens, the importance of a balanced diet, and the various types of chicken feed available.

Chickens as Omnivores

What Does It Mean?

Chickens are omnivores, meaning they eat both plant and animal matter. Their natural diet can range from seeds and plants to insects and small animals. This diverse diet contributes to their overall health and well-being.

Importance of a Balanced Diet

Why Balance is Crucial

A balanced diet is essential for chickens for several reasons:

  1. Optimal Health: Provides all the essential nutrients needed for growth, feather quality, and general well-being.
  2. Egg Production: Directly impacts the quality and quantity of eggs produced.
  3. Disease Resistance: A well-balanced diet boosts the immune system, making chickens less susceptible to diseases.

Types of Chicken Feed Available

Your Options

There are various types of chicken feed available in the market, each formulated for specific life stages and needs. Here’s a quick rundown:

  • Starter Feed: High in protein, ideal for chicks up to 6 weeks old.
  • Grower Feed: Balanced nutrition for adolescent chickens.
  • Layer Feed: Formulated for egg-laying hens, rich in calcium.
  • Specialty Feeds: Organic, non-GMO, and other niche options.

What Do Chickens Naturally Eat?

Understanding what chickens naturally eat can help you replicate a more organic and balanced diet for your flock. In this section, we’ll explore the variety of foods that chickens consume in their natural environment and discuss their opportunistic feeding behavior.

Seeds, Plants, Insects, and Small Animals

The Natural Diet

Chickens are not picky eaters by nature. In a free-range setting, their diet can include:

  1. Seeds: Such as sunflower and pumpkin seeds.
  2. Plants: Including leaves, grass, and herbs.
  3. Insects: Like worms, beetles, and crickets.
  4. Small Animals: Occasionally, they may consume small rodents or lizards.

The Opportunistic Nature of Chickens

Foraging Behavior

Chickens are opportunistic feeders, meaning they’ll eat what’s readily available. Whether it’s scratching the ground for seeds or chasing after insects, chickens adapt their diet based on what they can find. This adaptability makes them resilient and capable of thriving in various environments.

Commercial Chicken Feed

When it comes to feeding your chickens, commercial feeds offer a convenient and balanced option. These feeds are specially formulated to meet the nutritional needs of your flock at various life stages. In this section, we’ll discuss the protein options available, the different forms of feed, and specialty feeds that cater to specific dietary requirements.

Protein Options in Chicken Feed

Types of Protein Sources

Commercial chicken feeds come with various protein sources to meet the nutritional needs of your flock. Common protein options include:

  1. Animal Protein: Such as fish meal and meat meal.
  2. Plant Protein: Like soybean meal and alfalfa meal.

Forms: Whole Grain, Pellets, Crumbles, or Mash

Choose the Right Form

The form in which the feed comes can also impact its nutritional value and ease of consumption. Here are the options:

  • Whole Grain: Natural grains, usually mixed with vitamins and minerals.
  • Pellets: Compressed feed into small, manageable pellets.
  • Crumbles: Broken pellets that are easier to eat.
  • Mash: A finely ground form of feed, often used for chicks.

Specialty Feeds: Organic, Soy-Free, Corn-Free, and Non-GMO

Catering to Specific Needs

For those looking to meet specific dietary requirements, various specialty feeds are available:

Type of FeedBenefits
OrganicFree from synthetic chemicals and GMOs
Soy-FreeIdeal for soy-sensitive chickens
Corn-FreeSuitable for corn-allergic birds
Non-GMOMade from non-genetically modified sources

Treats and Supplements

While commercial feeds provide a balanced diet, treats, and supplements can add variety and additional nutrients to your chickens’ diet. However, it’s essential to know what’s safe and beneficial for your flock. In this section, we’ll discuss popular treats like mealworms and black oil sunflower seeds, as well as the do’s and don’ts of kitchen scraps.

Mealworms, Grubblies, and Black Oil Sunflower Seeds

Nutritious Treats

These are some of the popular treats that are not only tasty but also nutritious:

  1. Mealworms: High in protein and loved by chickens.
  2. Grubbies: Another protein-rich treat that chickens enjoy.
  3. Black Oil Sunflower Seeds: Packed with healthy fats and oils.

Kitchen Scraps and What to Avoid

Safe and Unsafe Scraps

Kitchen scraps can be a cost-effective way to supplement your chickens’ diet, but it’s crucial to know what’s safe. Here’s a quick guide:

  • Safe to Feed: Fruits, vegetables, and grains.
  • Avoid Onions, garlic, and processed foods high in salt and sugar.
Type of ScrapsExamples
SafeApple, carrot, rice
UnsafeOnion, garlic, chips

Feeding Guidelines

Feeding your chickens isn’t just about what to feed them, but also how much and how often. In this section, we’ll delve into the guidelines for feeding quantities and discuss some best practices to ensure your flock gets the nutrition it needs without overfeeding.

How Much to Feed Your Chickens

Quantity Matters

The amount of feed your chickens require can vary based on several factors such as age, activity level, and whether they are laying eggs. Here’s a general guideline:

  • Chicks (0-6 weeks): Unlimited starter feed
  • Adolescent Chickens (7-20 weeks): 2-3 cups of grower feed per bird
  • Laying Hens: 4 cups of layer feed per bird

Best Practices for Feeding

Tips for Effective Feeding

To ensure that your chickens are well-fed without wasting food, consider these best practices:

  1. Consistent Timing: Feed your chickens at the same times every day.
  2. Monitor Consumption: Keep an eye on the feed levels to adjust quantities as needed.
  3. Clean Feeders: Regularly clean the feeders to prevent mold and contamination.
Best PracticeWhy It’s Important
Consistent TimingHelps regulate the chickens’ digestive system
Monitor ConsumptionPrevents overfeeding and waste
Clean FeedersEnsures the feed stays fresh and uncontaminated

Storage and Hygiene

Proper storage and hygiene practices are crucial for maintaining the quality of chicken feed and ensuring the health of your flock. In this section, we’ll discuss how to store chicken feed effectively and why clean water is an essential aspect of chicken care.

How to Store Chicken Feed

Storage Solutions

Improper storage can lead to spoilage and contamination. Here are some tips for effective storage:

  1. Airtight Containers: Store the feed in airtight containers to keep moisture out.
  2. Cool, Dry Place: Keep the containers in a cool, dry area away from direct sunlight.
  3. Rotation: Use older feed first to ensure freshness.

Importance of Clean Water

Why Clean Water Matters

Water is as crucial as food in the chicken diet. Here are some reasons why clean water is essential:

  • Digestion: Aids in the digestion of food.
  • Temperature Regulation: Helps regulate body temperature.
  • Nutrient Absorption: Facilitates the absorption of nutrients.
Aspect of Clean WaterImportance
DigestionAids in breaking down food
Temperature RegulationHelps maintain body heat
Nutrient AbsorptionEnhances nutrient uptake


You’ve made it to the end of this comprehensive guide on chicken nutrition. Let’s summarize the key points and offer some final recommendations for chicken owners.

Summary of Key Points

What We’ve Learned

  1. Importance of Diet: Understanding what chickens eat is crucial for their health and productivity.
  2. Types of Feed: Commercial feeds offer a balanced diet, but natural foods and treats can add variety.
  3. Feeding Guidelines: How much and how often you feed your chickens matters as much as what you feed them.
  4. Storage and Hygiene: Proper storage and clean water are essential for maintaining feed quality and chicken health.

Final Recommendations for Chicken Owners


  • Balanced Diet: Always aim for a balanced diet that meets the nutritional needs of your flock.
  • Monitor and Adjust: Keep an eye on your chickens’ health and egg production to adjust their diet as needed.
  • Hygiene: Regularly clean feeders and water containers to prevent contamination.
Final RecommendationsWhy It’s Important
Balanced DietEnsures optimal health and productivity
Monitor and AdjustAllows for timely dietary adjustments
HygienePrevents disease and contamination

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: Can I feed my chickens kitchen scraps?

A: Yes, you can feed your chickens kitchen scraps like fruits, vegetables, and grains. However, avoid giving them onions, garlic, and processed foods high in salt and sugar.

Q: How often should I feed my chickens?

A: It’s best to feed your chickens at consistent times every day. For laying hens and adult chickens, once or twice a day is generally sufficient.

Q: Do chickens need grit?

A: Yes, chickens require grit for proper digestion, especially if they are eating whole grains or other hard foods.

Q: Is it okay to feed chickens bread?

A: While bread is not harmful in small amounts, it’s not nutritionally balanced. It should only be given as an occasional treat and not as a primary food source.

Q: What should I do if my chicken is not laying eggs?

A: Lack of egg production can be due to various factors such as stress, insufficient light, or poor nutrition. Make sure your chickens are getting a balanced diet rich in protein and calcium.

Q: Can chickens eat meat?

A: Chickens are omnivores, so they can eat meat. However, it’s best to stick to lean meats and avoid processed or seasoned meats.

Q: How can I keep my chicken feed fresh?

A: Store chicken feed in a cool, dry place in airtight containers. Use older feed first to ensure freshness.

Categorized in: